Saint Charles Borromeo of the Catholic Reformation: 1538-1584
In response to the incursions of Lutheranism and Calvinism, Borromeo galvanized the Church's genius for administration by fostering the principles of local control by local bishops and the pastoral guidance of diffuse popular piety. Modern historians comment that Cardinal Carlo Borromeo enacted personally the Milanese “synthesis” of the streams of Tridentine reform which included the canonical prescriptions, theory, and emotion of Trent, and the institutional resources of Rome. In this way, the Church's 16th century reforms are highlighted by this particular personality and his institutional reforms, which depended heavily on personal implementation at the local level. In other words: we see the idea of the priesthood of all believers and the subsidiarity of authority alive and well in the Catholic Church of the 16th century.